Innovative technologies for biological tillage
(catch crops, biostimulation)
Ľubomír Marhavý & Ivana Šindelková
Current technological practices and access to agricultural land are still largely inadequate for current soil and climatic conditions. The cause of unstable yields in Slovakia and the Czech Republic is the deteriorating condition of soils, caused by a long-term reduction in the carbon stock in the soil and the related low biological activity in the soil profile. This is closely related to the deterioration of physical and chemical properties of the soil, disturbed water and air regime and declining levels of nutrient utilization. If a farmer, for whom land should be the basic means of production, does not begin to look at the land and its degradation and perceive the need for remediation, the goals of their business intentions cannot be expected to be met. Every farmer must be able to decide on his land what care he needs with regard to production to ensure the self-sufficiency of healthy food production, but also the profitability of production on his own farm. The aim of this lecture is to show the possibilities and confirm the solution of soil protection technologies to improve soil management in practice. Plant roots in cooperation and symbiosis with micro and macro organisms are the best structure-forming factors. Agricultural practice does not sufficiently recognize this fact and the structure-forming effect of active soil biology is not used by the soil or very little. "Most rely on brute mechanical force." We can improve the condition of the soil structure by supplying organic fertilizers, not only manure, sludge or compost, but mainly by intermediate crops for green fertilization, including the inclusion of legumes in the field crop system or the inclusion of soil biostimulants. However, the basis is "biological tillage" instead of mechanical tillage.